[한 줄 에센스]

"어떤 방식을 택하든 바로 오늘이 더 나은 세상을 만들기 위한 여정의 첫발을 내딛는 날이라고 생각하자. 우리 한 사람 한 사람은 지대한 영향을 끼칠 수 있는 잠재력을 지니고 있다."



[리뷰]

효율, 이타주의. 조금은 생소할 수도 있는 이 두 단어를 조합해서 "효율적 이타주의"에 대한 정의와 이를 위해 알아야 할 것들을 설명해준다. 일단 한 가지 알아둬야 할 사항이 있다. 도움을 주고자 하는 대상이 다수일 경우에 한해 수긍이 가는 내용이라는 부분이다. 가령 1:1 결연을 맺고 도움을 주는 방식에 대입하기에는 애매한 부분도 있다.

조금 과장해보면 기부를 함에 있어서 마치 투자자가 투자 대상을 찾는 것에 비교될 정도로 철저하게 검증을 하며 효율을 추구하는 방법을 설명하고 있다.


남을 돕는다는 부분에 있어서 감정에만 이끌려 기부를 하기보다 더 체계적이고 효율적으로 기부를 해야하는 이유를 설명하는데 그 중에서 눈길을 끄는 내용이 있었다.

"도덕적 허가 효과는 사람들이 실제로 착한 일을 하는 것보다 착해 보이는 것. 착한 행동을 했다고 인식하는 것을 더 중요하게 여긴다는 점을 보여준다. 에너지 절약 전구를 구입하는 행위로 '내 몫을 했다'고 생각하면 조금 뒤에 잔돈 몇 푼을 훔쳐도 '나는 좋은 사람'이라는 자기 인식이 흔들리지 않는다."


내가 생각하기에 좋은 일 몇 번 했다고 해서 그게 앞으로 하게 될 지도 모를 나쁜 일에 대한 면죄부가 될 수는 없다. 혹시라도 "난 지금껏 지켜야 할 것들을 지키며 살아왔으니 한두 번 쯤은 지키지 않아도 괜찮아."와 같은 생각을 하게 될 때면 꼭 떠올려야 할 내용이다.


아주 가끔 재난이 발생했을 때 소액을 기부하거나, 연말에 거리를 지나다니면서 구세군을 그냥 지나치고 싶지 않을 때 지갑을 여는 정도였다. 가능한 빨리 소액이라도 체계적인 기부를 실천하고 있는 나를 발견할 수 있기를 기대해본다.



[기록]

✓ 많은 사람들이 세상을 더 나은 곳으로 만들고 싶어 한다. 이 책을 읽는 당신도 마찬가지일 것이다. 하지만 트레버 필드의 사례가 보여주듯 좋은 의도가 나쁜 결과를 낳는 일이 종종 벌어지기도 한다. 다른 사람을 최대한 효율적으로 돕는 확실한 방법은 무엇인지, 선의가 오히려 해악을 끼치는 부작용없이 최대한의 긍정적인 효과를 거두려면 어떻게 해야 하는지 제대로 알지 못한 탓이다.

이 책은 이 질문에 대한 답을 찾는다. 따뜻한 가슴에 차가운 머리를 결합시켜야, 다시 말해 이타적 행위에 데이터와 이성을 적용할 때라야 비로소 선한 의도가 좋은 결과를 낳을 수 있다.


✓ 우리는 남을 도우려 할 때 신중하게 생각하지 않고 무턱대고 행동으로 옮기곤 한다. 숫자와 이성을 들이대면 선행의 본질이 흐려진다고 생각하기 때문이다. 그 탓에 세상에 큰 변화를 일으킬 수 있는 기회도 놓치고 만다.


✓ 적절한 피드백이 없는 상태에서는 당신의 이타적인 행위가 실제로 남한테 득이 되는지 실이 되는지 명확하게 알기 어렵다.


✓ 효율적 이타주의는 '내가 가진 능력으로 세상을 얼마나 바꿀 수 있을까?'를 자문하고 증거와 신중한 추론으로 그 해답을 찾아 나가는 것이다.


✓ 이타주의가 희생을 뜻한다고 생각하는 사람들이 많은데 내 생각은 다르다. 남을 도우면서 안락한 삶을 누리는 것도 이타주의다.


✓ 중요한 건 효율적 이타주의가 '그만저만한' 선행을 하는 데 그치는 것이 아니라 힘닿는 한 최대한의 효과를 가두려고 노력한다는 점이다.


#comment

책을 한 권 사러 서점에 간 김에 도서관에서 대여할 책 리스트를 작성해왔다. 딱히 다른 사람을 돕고 있지 않음에도 읽어보고 싶은 생각이 든 책이다.



✓ 우리는 이 세상의 갖가지 문제에 질려 더러 이렇게 중얼거린다. "내가 나서서 도와 봤자 양동이에 물 한 방울 더 보태는 격이지 뭐가 달라지겠어"라고 말이다. 하지만 이는 결코 사실이 아니다. 문제는 물 한 방울의 크기지 양동이의 크기가 아니다. 마음만 먹으면 우리는 매우 커다란 물 한 방울을 만들어 낼 수 있다. 같은 비용으로 우리가 누리는 편익보다 100배나 더 많은 편익을 남에게 제공할 수 있다. 우리가 세상의 모든 문제를 해결할 수는 없다. 그렇다 해도 우리가 수천 명의 삶을 바꿀 수 있다는 사실은 변하지 않는다.


✓ 더 살기 좋은 세상을 만들기 위한 '가장 효율적인' 방법은 무엇인가? 즉각 해결해야 할 문제는 무엇이고 나중으로 미뤄도 되는 문제는 무엇인가? 한 가지 행위에 더 큰 가치를 두기란 심리적으로도 현실적으로도 쉽지 않다. 그렇다고 불가능한 건 아니다. 이처럼 다양한 이타적 행위를 비교하려면 '얼마나 많은 사람들에게, 얼마나 큰 혜택이 돌아가는가'를 자문해야 한다. 이것이 바로 효율적 이타주의의 첫 번째 핵심 질문이다.


#comment

이 책은 부분적 인용에 대해 comment를 다는 것이 꽤 망설여지는 느낌이다. 이타주의란 단어는 어색하게 느껴졌지만 거기에 효율이란 단어가 같이 들어간 것이 이 책에 대한 호기심을 자극하고 있다.



✓ 평균 수준의 효과만 내는 프로그램에 자금을 댈 게 아니라 최고의 성과를 내는 프로그램을 골라 거기에 자금을 투입해야 막대한 효과를 거둘 수 있다는 말이다.


✓ 남을 도우려 할 때 돈을 '잘' 쓰는 것과 '가장 잘' 쓰는 것의 차이는 어마어마하다. 그렇기 때문에 '이 사업을 시행하는 게 돈을 잘 쓰는 일일까?'라고 묻는 데 그칠 게 아니라 '이 사업을 시행하는 게 돈을 가장 잘 쓰는 일일까?'를 물어야 한다.


✓ 미미한 변화가 아니라 가장 큰 변화를 만들어 낸다는 확신이 드는 기부처를 택해야 한다.


✓ 기부는 화염에 휩싸인 건물을 부수고 들어가는 것처럼 눈부신 액션은 없어도 생명을 구한다는 점은 동일하다. 가장 효율적인 단체에 기부하는 것만으로도 수십 명의 목숨을 구할 수 있다니, 그만큼 대단한 일이 어디 있을까?


#comment

기부를 할 때도 많은 부분을 꼼꼼하게 점검한 후에 실행해야 하는 걸 상당히 강조하고 있다.



✓ 대다수 사람들이 자연재해에 대응하는 방식을 보면 우리가 남을 도울 때 감정에 휘둘리며 기존 문제보다 새로운 사건에 더 큰 관심을 보인다는 사실을 알 수 있다.


✓ 우리는 성과를 가늠할 때 다른 방식으로 문제에 접근했다면 어떤 결과를 낳았을지 별로 생각해 보지 않는 경향이 있는데, 그래선 안 된다. 중요한 건 '누가' 그 일을 해냈느냐가 아니라 그 일이 '효과'가 있었는지 여부다. 얼마나 효과가 있는지 가늠하는 건 당신의 행위로 인한 결과와, 당신이 아니었더라도 어차피 일어날 결과의 차이에 달려 있다.


✓ 당신의 행위 덕분에 얻은 직접적인 혜택이 선행 여부를 결정하는 게 아니다. 그보다는 행위로 인해 빚어진 결과가 선행 여부를 결정한다.


✓ 기부를 위한 돈벌이는 남을 돕는 데 매우 효율적인 방법이다. 선진국의 평범한 노동자가 전 세계적으로 볼 때 상위 몇 퍼센트에 해당한다는 사실과 상대적으로 적은 비용으로 전 세계 극빈층에 큰 도움을 주는 단체들이 있다는 점을 십분 활용하는 길이기 때문이다.


#comment

일리있는 주장이라고 생각되긴 해도 감정적으로는 썩 내키지 않는 부분도 있다. 기본적으로 효율에만 포커스가 맞춰져 있어서 그런 것 같다.



✓ 남을 도울 때도 마찬가지다. 성공 가능성과 성공의 가치를 '모두' 따져 봐야 한다. 즉, 성공이 보장돼 있지만 영향력은 미미한 일보다 가능성은 낮지만 성공하기만 하면 보상이 막대한 일을 우선시해야 할 때가 있다는 말이다. '한 사람의 노력으로는 세상을 변화시킬 수 없다'고 흔히 착각하는 이유도 이 때문이다.


✓ 어떤 행위의 잠재력을 평가할 때 '그런 일은 절대 일어날 리가 없다'는 이유로 묵살해서는 안 된다. 지금은 상식이 된 대다수의 윤리적 관념들도 과거에는 매우 급진적인 것으로 간주되었다.


✓ 최악의 결과가 빚어질 위험이 간과되고 있다면 이러한 결과를 방지하는 데 힘을 보태는 것은 특히나 효율적인 이타적 행위다.


#comment

효율이란 단어 대신 다른 단어를 택했더라면 위화감이 훨씬 덜 했을 것 같은데 아쉬운 부분이다.



아래 5가지 요소를 참고하면 효율적인 기부처를 가려낼 수 있다.

1. 이 단체는 어떤 일을 하는가?

2. 사업의 비용효율성이 높은가?

3. 사업의 실효성이 객관적으로 검증되었는가?

4. 사업이 제대로 실행되고 있는가?

5. 이 단체는 추가 자금이 필요한가?


#comment

좋은 일을 할 때도 확인, 검증을 꼼꼼하게 할 수 있게끔 방법을 알려준다.



✓ 기부를 하면 당신의 돈을 가장 효율적인 사업에만 집중시킬 수 있다. '최선'의 활동과 '그럭저럭 좋은' 활동의 결과가 다르다는 점만 봐도 효율적인 기부가 얼마나 큰 영향을 미치는지 알 수 있다.

✓ 윤리적 소비 물결이 오히려 해로울 수도 있다고 생각할 만한 까닭이 있다. 바로 심리학자들이 말하는 '도덕적 허가' 효과 때문이다. 이는 착한 일을 한 번 하고 나면 이후에 선행을 덜 실천하는 것으로 보상받으려 하는 경향을 말한다.

✓ 도덕적 허가 효과는 사람들이 실제로 착한 일을 하는 것보다 착해 보이는 것. 착한 행동을 했다고 인식하는 것을 더 중요하게 여긴다는 점을 보여준다. 에너지 절약 전구를 구입하는 행위로 '내 몫을 했다'고 생각하면 조금 뒤에 잔돈 몇 푼을 훔쳐도 '나는 좋은 사람'이라는 자기 인식이 흔들리지 않는다.

✓ 도덕적 허가 효과는 결심을 비틀 수 있다. 다른 사람이 효율적인 선행을 할 수 있도록 이끌었다 하더라도 그들이 향후 남을 돕는 횟수를 줄이는 방식으로 이타적 행위에 대한 보상을 받으려고 한다면 의미가 없다. 작은 선행에서 출발해 이를 발판 삼아 앞으로 더 효율적인 선행을 실천할 수 있도록 틀을 마련해야 도덕적 허가 효과를 방지할 수 있다.

✓ 비효율적인 이타적 행동이 문제가 되는 건 이 때문이다. 착한 일을 했다는 생각에 취하면 이후에 효율적인 이타적 행동을 할 여지가 줄어들 수 있다. 가령 다른 사람에게 공정무역 제품을 구입하라고 권했더니 그보다 효율적인 선행에는 정작 시간과 돈을 덜 쓰게 만드는 결과로 이어진다면 공정무역 제품 구매를 장려하는 일 자체가 해로울 수 있다.


#comment

'도덕적 허가 효과'에 대한 설명은 꽤나 흥미로운 부분이다.



✓ 계획이 아예 없는 것보다야 형편없는 계획이라도 있는 게 낫지만 그것도 계획을 기꺼이 수정할 의향이 있을 때나 통하는 얘기다.

✓ 우리 각자에게는 수십, 수백 명의 생명을 구할 수 있는 힘이, 수천 명의 삶을 크게 개선시킬 힘이 있다.

✓ 어떤 방식을 택하든 바로 오늘이 더 나은 세상을 만들기 위한 여정의 첫발을 내딛는 날이라고 생각하자. 우리 한 사람 한 사람은 지대한 영향을 끼칠 수 있는 잠재력을 지니고 있다.


#comment

나를 위한 노력이 나를 포함, 타인에게도 긍정적인 영향을 줄 수 있다면 이타주의라는 단어를 갖다 붙일 것도 없이 '효율적인 개인주의'란 표현을 쓸 수 있을 것 같다는 생각을 해본다.



부록 요약

착한 일을 하기 전에 물어야 할 4가지 질문

1. 어떻게 하면 최대한의 선을 행할 수 있을까?

- 얼마나 많은 사람들에게, 얼마나 큰 혜택이 제공되는가?

- 이것이 가장 효율적인 방법인가?

- 방치되고 있는 분야는 없는가?

- 그렇게 하지 않았다면 어떻게 됐을까?

- 성공 가능성은 어느 정도이고, 성공했을 때의 효과는 어느 정도인가?

2. 어떤 단체에 기부해야 할까?

위에 정리된 내용 있음

3. 어떤 진로를 선택해야 할까?

- 이 일이 내 적성에 맞는가?

- 이 일을 하면서 얼마나 영향을 미칠 수 있는가?

- 이 일이 내 영향력을 키우는 데 얼마나 보탬이 되는가?

4. 어떤 명분에 집중해야 할까?

- 규모

- 방치 정도

- 해결 용이성

- 적성




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  • 와! 저 정말 이책 제 인생 책이예요! 여기서 보니 반갑네요!

    기부에 대한 회의감이 들고 있을때 이 책을 읽었어요. 저는 다른 사람들을 이롭게 하기 위해 기부를 하였지만, 실제로 이 세상에 얼마나 영향을 미치는 것일까를 생각하다 서점에서 우연히 발견하고는 읽은 책이 저의 기부에 대한 마인드를 180도 바꾸었습니다!ㅎㅎ 다시 보니 정말 반갑네요!!ㅎㅎ

    $levi . 2019.04.23

  • re:

    $realprince

    대상이 명확한 다수에 대한 기부를 할 때는 참고가 많이 되는 것 같습니다.


    $nilgo

    반반이라는 훌륭한 방법이 있습니다. :)


    $sara

    상당히 뜨끔할 수 있는 내용이죠. 보면서 저도 잠시 멍때렸습니다.


    $boyelleq

    Thanks. One Day, I hope I can post in English. :)


    $ramascorpio

    Thanks. :)


    $bigman35

    아름다운 약속을 지키고 계시는군요. :) 이 책을 통해서는 대상이 특정된 다수에 대한 기부에 대한 여러가지 생각에 대한 정리를 할 수 있는 첫걸음이 된 것 같고, 그 외에도 1:1 결연을 통한 기부를 어떻게 해야 할 지에 대해 생각해 볼 기회가 생겼다는 것에 의미가 있는 것 같습니다.


    $chea

    앞으로도 서로 좋은 책에 대한 정보, 생각을 많이 나눴으면 좋겠습니다.

    $teo . 2019.04.20

  • 감사합니다!

    좋은 책 소개햐주셔서!

    $chea . 2019.04.20

  • 공감이 많이 갑니다.

    전 1대1 결연으로 아프리카에 3명의 마음으로 낳은 자녀를 지원합니다. 진급할 때마다 1명씩 늘이자는 약속은 지킨고 있습니다. 효울적인 지원? 참 고민많이 했었죠..어쩌면 내가 낸 돈의 더 많은 부분이 아이에게 전해지고 또 그 아이에게 집중될 수 있을까 를 많이 고민했습니다. 꼭 읽어보고 싶네요..

    $bigman35 . 2019.04.20

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  • Only you know the answer.

    Books

    I felt more tired because I went to work on Saturday after a long time and greeted Sunday. Today, I had a day with a pledge to rest, but I feel bored in the afternoon. I have no feeling of taking a special rest, so I take a book. The book I'm going to introduce today is 'No Warren,' a simple readable book called 'You Only Know the Answer.' If one experiences difficulties in human relations at work, it is thought to be a book that suggests a methodology that can be reconsidered from the basics of communication. Looking at the subtitle of the book, it has a long and long subtitle: "The profound lessons of life changing one's life, how to form relationships with others, especially with oneself." In fact, the subtitle is being solved from the main character's perspective of "Bob" in the form of a story. Here's a quote from what I liked. "If no one cares about what you're doing, Bob, why are you wasting your life trying to make others like you?" (P31) The meaning may be different, but have you ever asked yourself, 'What do you work for?' Well... why am I working? simply for money? I'd like to think about it seriously for once and get it over with. "It's a word that expresses your personal style. That's how you relate to the world. You think it's important to entertain others. I don't know why, but there's an incident in your childhood that seems to hold you back. It's an obstacle to your best qualities. It's like always putting your foot on the brakes when you're traveling in a car and you're afraid it won't stop when you need it. You can't go anywhere with your foot on the brake." (P61 in the text) Yes, you can't go with your foot on the brake. I know it well, but it's really hard. "It's as simple as the eyes, nose, and mouth on your face. Wouldn't it be better for you to understand other people's characteristics? Well, isn't communication your main business, anyway? Same with other people. We communicate with people every day. A good leader is the one who understands this." (P93) In order to identify these characteristics, the book presents the pros and cons in four categories. The style is of initiative type, stability type, sociability type and prudence type. Of course, I won't mention each character separately because I can read the book. The volume of the book is appropriate and is easily written in the form of a story, which is thought to be a good book to check and evoke the patterns of one's conversation. What type are you? PS pictures are taken from Pixbay. RealPrince

    $realprince . 2019.05.12 22:47

    17 thanks . 1,817.1655 PUB

  • teenage brain

    Books

    # Teenage brain #book # It's a nice Saturday evening. Are you having delicious meals? I'm sure some of you have already finished. I read a book after a while. A few days ago, I was craving a book that my wife had been reading, and I had a chance to steal it.^^ It's a book titled "Teenage Brain." Since there are two teenagers in my family, the title is very interesting. Sure, I recommend reading this book if you have a teenager in your family. Teenagers these days seem to be wasting too much time studying things they don't want to do, such as private tutoring. Since you were born into a competitive society called Korea, what can you do? You might think, Through this book, I think I can show my child how to study more easily. Of course, not only study, but I think I can guide you on how to live in this world wisely. Society stresses that adults understand a child! Adjust it to the eye level of a child' But adults don't know how to do that. I think this book will help adults find that way easily. Teenage brains. What do you think? There's an answer in this book! (It's like a book ad.) The rest of the bullfights! Have a good time!

    $marines . 2019.05.11 19:36

    21 thanks . 16,068.6913 PUB

  • Kim Ji-young, born in 82

    Books

    I read it because it is such a controversial book. I read in a desire to at least have a little more understanding of the women of today who are working with my wife and me. The writer skillfully wrote down the story of Kim Ji-young, a "ordinary person." In the middle of the reading, I'd like to tell my wife "It's more like a history book that tells the life story of ordinary women of 82 years, rather than a novel," she said. It was a story that my sister, my wife, my friends, and my juniors would have been through several times, so I felt sympathy and felt that I should change first. The author tells the story of Kim Ji-young and the story of the women who have lived and lived their recent lives. What I said earlier is not that the writer wrote with any intention, but that he was well centered on recording facts. It's not all men that bothers Kim Ji-young. It was the other women who gave the vital organs of mind. In other words, I think the writer wanted to say that it is not men or women who are holding modern women together, but society that should change. I'm talking about the need to change each of the women and men who are members of society to change that society. but It was not until I read the last chapter why this book was so popular. The last chapter of commentary from deep in the end of the woman of letters being told that the dichotomy between men and women contains access. He blamed "some" men's faults on all men, and called them the fault of some "men" who so educated old-generation women, and was once again expanding it into all men's faults. A scholar can't be so narrow-minded as... made me think that I felt like a child patting a red-hot cheek in front of a teacher who slapped a child with a slap in the face when he thought, "I should change first from me," after a moment's lapse of consciousness from the story that the writer was telling me. Anyway, this book was something that, except for the excrement of the scholar, has lived, lived and lived in this era, and should be read and thought deeply. 4.5 out of 5 stars. 0.5 of them are due to the excrement of the scholar.

    $gregory . 2019.05.10 14:12

    6 thanks . 864.4299 PUB

  • And there's one sentence left.

    Books

    At first, I felt that my writing was short, but as I passed through the pages, I learned. The fact that there is no need to elucidate great people. The writings on Endo Shusaku, Jean Grenier and Christopher Merrill are particularly memorable. ⠀⠀⠀ #And one sentence left #Hope #Thinking station #Book # Bookstagram

    $book . 2019.05.10 08:30

    6 thanks . 878.0469 PUB

  • Podcast

    Books

    I listen to podcasts about books constantly while living. <What this is>, <Readout> is taken every time it is updated At the same time, I was looking for another podcast, but I couldn't find a satisfactory broadcast. Then I discovered Munhakdongne's Literature Story, which is no longer broadcast. It's like Shin Hyung-chul's lecture or book talk. You can hear literary stories that are as dense as that. Also, now I have the pleasure of listening to stories about the good books of the time when they became old books. Listening to each and every episode of the show makes me sad. #Podcast #Literature Story #Literature Village #New season # BookStagram

    $book . 2019.05.09 08:17

    5 thanks . 691.8275 PUB

  • Kyung-kyung

    Books

    🌱 "The beast dies while enjoying, and the man dies after being full of wonder," Jean-Grini said. He was a natural wonder. Yes, sir. It is not just about the big and the great What a wonder a small blade of grass that cast its face between the sidewalk blocks. How much do we want to live?

    $book . 2019.05.07 08:24

    5 thanks . 547.1992 PUB

  • Anyway, Plants.

    Books

    🌿🌿 'Now I know in this world that what I can and cannot be raised is sharply divided. Some of the things that had been cultivated with no chance of growing up were plants that were home to hot, dry land, and people's hearts.’ ⠀⠀⠀ #anything plants #im and #Conan Books #anytime series # Bookstagram # Bookstagram #

    $book . 2019.05.06 12:09

    5 thanks . 607.6632 PUB

  • Ask 'why' and let 's 'feel' write 'em

    Books

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Backing from the front line does not seem to create any value. But the irony of that useless time making life useful is the truth that is always waived. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- But whether it is well written, unfinished, hidden, or blown away without saving it as a file, Each and every one of these processes is an effort to establish one's own thoughts and form a style, and to practice the aesthetics of life. And while I'm trying to write, I'm holding myself together, and I'm not sure how long I'm writing. It's a moment of self-restraint and desire, of greeting the countless others in my life. Now I can put down my impatience and reproach and speak to scholars without empty words. Nothing in the world is meaningless. Let's write it. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -The front line of writing, metaphor-- It is a good book to know good inspiration and how to write. I borrowed it accidentally from the library. I recommend it!

    $kimsfamily . 2019.05.04 15:23

    9 thanks . 729.7447 PUB

  • [book펍] #5 Unlistened Cyrene

    Books

    Why does poverty belong to the state? Many left-wing commentators were struggling to cope with Venezuela's economic collapse. Most of these advocacy logic is that oil prices are falling, and U.S. sanctions are the main culprit behind the economic collapse. But considering the economic prosperity of Hong Kong and Singapore, small island countries with no resources, one can see that this is not the case. In the end, the nation's prosperity lies in economic freedom. Venezuela's economic collapse began when the government took over the management of the oil industry. Venezuela's state-owned oil company Fedebec Inc. was able to make decisions almost as freely as a private company, taking advantage of mistakes and corruption in state-owned companies like Pemex, and was run by competent managers. In 1999, when Hugo Chavez came to power, he was deprived of his freedom. It laid off as many as 18,000 professionals and hired workers who lacked expertise but were politically loyal to them. Due to their incompetence, the oil purchase process was delayed more than necessary, and serious fire accidents occurred frequently because they did not know how to safely manage the facilities. As a result, crude oil production fell 25 percent from 1999 to 2013. Crude exports, which accounted for 77 percent of all exports in 1998, soared to 97 percent in 2011, as other production activities were also dented. Many countries collapsed with the advent of socialism, even though there were intellectuals who warned against such tragedies in advance, but were suppressed and ignored. Socialists have called for democracy, arguing that all adults are responsible for having the right to vote and playing an equal part in political decision-making, while at the same time raising the issue of what independent people consider unable to run their lives without the involvement of government officials with full authority. Socialist advocates with the right to vote confused society and the state, confused collectivism and altruism. The tax and welfare system encourages people to live on each other's money to take power, and the people insist on delegating full power to them. Before the Russian Revolution, Lenin dissolved a democratically elected lawmaker under the rule of Lenin, who won a peaceful election in the early 20th century. Since then, nationalization of all institutions independent of economic dominance has proceeded, resulting in totalitarian results. "The more the nation makes a plan, the more difficult it is to plan for individuals."

    $eaglekeeneye . 2019.05.04 11:26

    19 thanks . 4,910.1917 PUB

  • child and death

    Books

    Translation. Can't you think it's a paper translation? In terms of content, he feels far from a logical approach, though he is cautious because he is still early.

    $book . 2019.05.03 13:28

    5 thanks . 197.4400 PUB

  • a box of manganese

    Books

    Everyone is introducing me good books, so I was intimidated to read genre novels, but I'm going to introduce a book after a long time. This book is a box of manganese stories from Baekgu Yaja, called Gyogokudo series in Korea. This is a book that seems to me to be a gift set with mystery When I first read it, I felt sick in some parts and had nightmares at night. I was so fascinated by the novel that I was overwhelmed by the atmosphere. At the center of the story is an ancient book store called Gyogokudo, which is run by Akiro Tsuzenji, who is a book buff who has read all the books in an ancient bookstore. I've learned a lot so much that I don't know anything about it. And all of you guys hear about events that take place one by one and ask for his opinion, and sometimes people move around at the request of him. They say they're forced into detective work because of people around them, but I don't know if they're enjoying themselves. His signature Jang Kwang-sul may be the highlight of the novel, but many people say it's hard to get too long. "Gyogokudo, who claims that there is nothing strange in the world, uses his knowledge to solve the truth of supernatural phenomena or unknown events, is the power to lead the Gyogokudo series.

    $nilgo . 2019.05.02 22:50

    28 thanks . 4,199.6787 PUB

  • A book that looks like a movie - THE ROAD

    Books

    I can't remember reading a novel recently. But I chose a novel after a long time. I felt a sense of immersion in the book I caught thoughtlessly. How long has it been since I read a book that feels like watching a movie? Today's book is 'THE ROAD' by Pulitzer Prize-winning Cormac McCarthy. The author is famous for being the originator of several films and for producing outstanding works despite his age. The film has also been made into a film, but there is no country for old people.It is said that the original film is also his work. While reading the book, I felt like a mix of disaster and zombie movies. The tension continues from beginning to end. The dialogue between the father and the son that appears in between is very philosophical. The movie is about to end the life of a protagonist who barely survives his life like a dying embers. I take some extracts from the memorable passages. "Don't forget that the things you put in your head stay there forever. Think about it./ The man said. Don't you forget something? / Yeah. I forget what I want to remember and I remember what I want to forget." (P17 from the text) Is that really so? When the remnants of memories you don't want to remember bother you, you deliberately focus on something. Maybe that's why he lives by working day by day. "People always prepared for tomorrow, but I didn't believe that. I didn't prepare anything for those people tomorrow. I didn't even know there were people like that./ I guess so. Even if you know what to do, you don't know what to do when you're in a hurry. You won't know if you want to do that. Imagine you're the last person left. Imagine you do that to yourself." (P192) While reading this book, I thought about this a lot. In fact, how am I going to live in a world similar to the end of the world? What choices can I make? Just as I was drawing those thoughts in my head, I got sucked into the book, and sometimes scenes were portrayed in the drama "Working Dead." Since the author, Cormac McCarthy, lived in seclusion similar to the story of the book, I wonder if he could have used it more realistically. It was a book that I had never thought of, and you'd be immersed in it. What will you do in the Earth devastated by the disaster? PS pictures are taken from Pixbay. realprince

    $realprince . 2019.05.02 22:41

    17 thanks . 2,987.4594 PUB

  • [Theodore Bookview Event]Participate...

    Books

    Thanks to Theodore, I have borrowed a book from author Wu, who is now quite close to me.^^ Thank you, Theo. May has a lot of good days However, it is also a month when we all should never forget.... 18-May If you look at this date, your hometown is Jeonnam, Gwangju, and you'll find yourself in a boiling point. I'm sure most of you can't control your anger. So, even though I read the book, the review is really careful.... First of all, I would like to express my deepest sympathy to the victims and their families of the people who were killed in the May 18 uprising.ᅮ.ᅮ Do you happen to have a word of it in front of Carl, the air force gun, to protect Gwangju? I'm also worried about who's going to be about the souls that fell down. With this kind of mind, I'm going to write carefully... Title: beyond death, beyond the darkness of the times Ji-eun:Jeonnam Society for the Movement of Korean Society, Hwang Seok-young Published:The Full Color of Book Publishing You're coming back. You're coming back. your florid soul with an unkind love and an unworthy dream Beyond death, beyond the darkness of the times. in a song of rebirth with a clear song of love You're coming back, of course. .......... Like the rising sun of a new day. rooted in the soil of the wilderness. Like the fragrance of spring and the crown daisies. Like an oak tree standing bare. rotting one's own body and germinating. Like barley, buried in the frozen ground, overcame the winter. To the root that never ends up dying The end of the window flying through the light, with an arrow running toward the target with all the glare of heaven and earth You're coming back. Come back. We're gonna need to get you back to your chest. It's becoming light. -Moon Byung-ran [Song of Revival Songs] So the beginning of the book is about the content of the book. It seems to be a book that vividly chronicles the May popular uprising in Gwangju. While I was reading the book, I had to put it down several times without actually turning it over. He described the situation at that time in such a dire way that... Things couldn't have been happening. at first sight On May 13, 1980, I was inspired by the street march in Seoul and spread to Gwangju. Chonnam National University and Chosun University also tried to enter the streets aggressively Despite continued tear gas shooting by police officers and a gonbong baptism, the students broke through the primary support line. About 10,000 student demonstrators took complete control of the plaza in front of the bugging. On the 14th and 15th, the demonstration went smoothly without any special restrictions from the police. May 16th, Seoul and other universities across the country decided to stop the protests and pay attention to the political situation. While the decision was made, the leaders of the Union of Student Movement in South Jeolla Province decided to hold a torchlight demonstration. The Popularity of Democratization in the 19 Years of the Darkness of Park Chung-hee's Military coup to Yushin dictatorship It was a decision of the will to light it with a torch. The prelude to the oppression of May 17 was beginning. Honam Expressway is packed with airborne troops from Seoul to Gwangju. A moving military vehicle was seen by many people. On the afternoon of May 17, about 1,000 airborne troops prepared to launch operations at the Gwangju Sangmu University's Combat Education Command. I was just waiting for orders from above. The government announced on May 17 that it would expand the emergency rule nationwide as of 24 p.m. Until the dawn of May 18, all major government offices and streets were filled with police, combat police, soldiers, and air force. They were stationed in a tight range and were in control. The students were prevented from entering the school because of the air force guarding the school's main We started a sit-in around. As time went by, the number of students began to increase. The captain of the air force who was facing a confrontation is out front, and if he doesn't disperse immediately, he'll be forced to do it. The students sang louder when they threatened to disperse. Then, suddenly, the airmen were shouting with orders to "forward to attack." As I dug in among the students, I began to hit them with a club. Students resisted a little at first, but they were different from the police. The airmen's club was a special club for killing and killing Several students fell on the ground, spilling blood.... The protests, which began with students, provoked the citizens with brutal acts and killings of airborne troops. The entire civilian population of Gwangju and South Jeolla Province is surrounded by their parents, children, brothers and sisters bleeding out. I had to see myself fall. What an egregious disaster.... Still, the government broadcast regular broadcasts as if nothing had happened to other regions and decided to stop the Gwangju uprising. No comment was made. Then, he made the absurd absurd remark of Gwangju riots.... I wrote more about the horrors in the book. Please understand that I cannot move here. After 40 years, I would like to express my deepest sympathy to the bereaved families of 5.18... Through this book, I learned exactly about the wrong things that I had only been exposed to in the media. I think I should live with the pain in my mind that I should never wake up again and never forget it.ᅮ.ᅮ

    $greenjuice11 . 2019.05.02 13:19

    11 thanks . 1,210.7500 PUB

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